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Related post: Abu Ghraib resulted in part from ordinary social processes, not just
extraordinary individual evil. Meta-analyses suggests that the right
(or wrong) social context can make almost anyone aggress, oppress,
conform, and obey.
3) Virtually anyone can be aggressive if sufficiently provoked,
stressed, disgruntled, or hot [3-5]. The situation of the 800th
Military Police Brigade guarding Abu Ghraib prisoners fit all the
social conditions known to cause aggression. The soldiers were
certainly provoked and stressed: at war, in Purchase Pyridostigmine Bromide constant danger, taunted
and harassed by some of the very citizens they were sent to save, and
their comrades were Order Pyridostigmine Bromide dying daily and unpredictably. Their morale
suffered, they were untrained for Buy Pyridostigmine Bromide the job, their command climate was
lax, their Order Pyridostigmine Bromide Online return home was a year overdue, their identity as
disciplined soldiers was gone, and their own amenities were scant.
Heat and discomfort also doubtless contributed.
4) The fact that the prisoners were part of a group encountered as
enemies would only exaggerate the tendency to feel spontaneous
prejudice against outgroups. In this context, oppression and
discrimination are synonymous. One of the most basic principles of
social psychology is that people prefer their own group and attribute
bad behavior to outgroups. Prejudice especially festers if people see
the outgroup as threatening cherished values. This would have
certainly applied to the guards viewing their prisoners at Abu Ghraib,
but it also applies in more Pyridostigmine Bromide Tablets "normal" situations. A recent sample of US
citizens on average viewed Muslims and Arabs as not sharing their
interests and stereotyped them as not especially sincere, honest,
friendly, or warm.
5) Even more potent predictors of discrimination are the emotional
prejudices ("hot" affective feelings such as disgust or contempt) that
operate in parallel with cognitive processes. Such emotional reactions
appear rapidly, even in neuroimaging of brain activations to
outgroups. But even they can be affected by social context.
Categorization of people as interchangeable members of an outgroup
promotes an amygdala response characteristic of vigilance and alarm
and an insula response characteristic of disgust or arousal, depending
on social context; these effects dissipate when the same people are
encountered as unique individuals.
1. S. T. Fiske, Social Beings (Wiley, New York, 2004)
2. F. D. Richard, C. F. Bond, J. J. Stokes-Zoota, Rev. Gen. Psychol.
7, 331 (2003)
3. B. A. Bettencourt, N. Miller, Psychol. Bull. 119, 422 (1996)
4. M. Carlson, N. Miller, Sociol. Soc. Res. 72, 155 (1988)
5. M. Carlson, A. Buy Pyridostigmine Bromide Online Marcus-Newhall, N. Miller, Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull.
15, 377 (1989)
MEDICAL BIOLOGY: ON SURVIVING TORTURE
The following points are made by Richard F. Mollica (New Engl. J. Med.
1) Purchase Pyridostigmine Bromide Online The shocking, unfiltered images from the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq
have focused the world's attention on the plight of torture survivors.
Physicians Buy Cheap Pyridostigmine Bromide in the US are confronted as never before with the need to
identify and treat the physical and psychological sequelae of extreme
violence and torture. Yet this is not a new role for medical
practitioners. More than 45 countries are currently suffering from the
destruction caused by mass violence.(1) The 20th century has been
called the "refugee century", with tens of millions of people
violently displaced from their homes. Millions of these people have
resettled in the US, and refugees, asylum seekers, and illegal
immigrants now commonly enter our health care institutions.(2)
2) Despite routine exposure to the suffering of victims of human
brutality, health care professionals tend to shy away from confronting
this reality. The author states that he and his colleagues have cared
for more than 10,000 torture survivors, and in their experience,
whether in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, East Timor, or the US,
clinicians avoid addressing torture-related symptoms of illness
because they are afraid of opening a Pandora's box: they believe they
will not have the tools or the time to help torture survivors once
they have elicited their history.
3) Unfortunately, survivors and clinicians may conspire to create a
relationship founded on the avoidance of all discussion of trauma. In
one instance, a middle-aged Cambodian woman had had an excellent
relationship with her American doctor for nine years, but he had no
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